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Mold Design and Manufacture (part 1)

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Update time : 2017-06-21 10:03:31
Mold Design and Manufacture(part 1)
 

    The mold is the manufacturing industry important craft foundation, in our country, the mold manufacture belongs to the special purpose equipment manufacturing industry. China although very already starts to make the mold and the use mold, but long-term has not formed the industry. Straight stabs 0 centuries 80's later periods, the Chinese mold industry only then drives into the development speedway. Recent years, not only the state-owned mold enterprise had the very big development, the three investments enterprise, the villages and towns (individual) the mold enterprise's development also quite rapidly.  
    Although the Chinese mold industrial development rapid, but compares with the demand, obviously falls short of demand, its main gap concentrates precisely to, large-scale, is complex, the long life mold domain. As a result of in aspect and so on mold precision, life, manufacture cycle and productivity, China and the international average horizontal and the developed country still had a bigger disparity, therefore, needed massively to import the mold every year .
    The Chinese mold industry except must continue to sharpen the productivity; from now on will have emphatically to the profession internal structure adjustment and the state-of-art enhancement. The structure adjustment aspect, mainly is the enterprise structure to the professional adjustment, the product structure to center the upscale mold development, to the import and export structure improvement, center the upscale automobile cover mold forming analysis and the structure improvement, the multi-purpose compound mold and the compound processing and the laser technology in the mold design manufacture application, the high speed cutting, the super finishing and polished the technology, the information direction develops .  
     The recent years, the mold profession structure adjustment and the organizational reform step enlarges, mainly displayed in, large-scale, precise, was complex, the long life, center the upscale mold and the mold standard letter development speed is higher than the common mold product; The plastic mold and the compression casting mold proportion increases; professional mold factory quantity and its productivity increase; "The three investments" and the private enterprise develops rapidly; The joint stock system transformation step speeds up and so on. Distributes from the area looked, take Zhujiang Delta and Yangtze River delta as central southeast coastal area development quickly to mid-west area, south development quickly to north. At present develops quickest, the mold produces the most centralized province is Guangdong and Zhejiang, places such as Jiangsu, Shanghai, Anhui and Shandong also has a bigger development in recent years.
    Although our country mold total quantity had at present achieved the suitable scale, the mold level also has the very big enhancement, after but design manufacture horizontal overall rise and fall industry developed country and so on Yu De, America, date, France, Italy many. The current existence question and the disparity mainly display in following several aspects:
    (1) The total quantity falls short of demand  
    Domestic mold assembling one rate only, about 70%. Low-grade mold, center upscale mold assembling oneself rate only has 50% about.
    (2) The enterprise organizational structure, the product structure, the technical structure and the import and export structure does not gather
    In our country mold production factory to be most is from the labor mold workshop which produces assembles oneself (branch factory), from produces assembles oneself the proportion to reach as high as about 60%, but the overseas mold ultra 70% is the commodity mold. The professional mold factory mostly is "large and complete", "small and entire" organization form, but overseas mostly is "small but", "is specially small and fine". Domestic large-scale, precise, complex, the long life mold accounts for the total quantity proportion to be insufficient 30%, but overseas in 50% above 2004 years, ratio of the mold import and export is 3.7:1, the import and export balances the after net import volume to amount to 1.32 billion US dollars, is world mold net import quantity biggest country .
    (3) The mold product level greatly is lower than the international standard  
    The production cycle actually is higher than the international water broad product level low mainly to display in the mold precision, cavity aspect and so on surface roughness, life and structure.
    (4) Develops the ability badly, economic efficiency unsatisfactory our country mold enterprise technical personnel proportion low
    The level is lower, also does not take the product development, and frequently is in the passive position in the market. Our country each mold staff average year creation output value approximately, ten thousand US dollars, overseas mold industry developed country mostly 15 to10, 000 US dollars, some reach as high as 25 to10, 000 US dollars, relative is our country quite part of molds enterprises also continues to use the workshop type management with it, truly realizes the enterprise which the modernized enterprise manages few  
    To create the above disparity the reason to be very many, the mold long-term has not obtained the value besides the history in as the product which should have, as well as the most state-owned enterprises mechanism cannot adapt the market economy, but also has the following several reasons: .
    (1) Country to mold industry policy support dynamics also insufficiently
    Although the country already was clear about has promulgated the mold profession industrial policy, but necessary policy few, carried out dynamics to be weak. At present enjoyed the mold product increment duty enterprise nation 185; the majority enterprise still the tax burden is only overweight. The mold enterprise carries on the technological transformations introduction equipment to have to pay the considerable amount the tax money, affects the technology advancement, moreover privately operated enterprise loan extremely difficult.
    (2) Talented person serious insufficient, the scientific research development and the technical attack investment too urine  
    Mold profession is the technology, the fund, the work crowded industry, along with the time progress and the technical development, grasps the talented person which and skilled utilizes the new technology exceptionally short, the high-quality mold fitter and the enterprise management talent extremely is also anxious. Because the mold enterprise profit unsatisfactory and takes insufficiently the scientific research development and the technical attack, the scientific research unit and the universities, colleges and institutes eye stares at is creating income, causes the mold profession invests too few in the scientific research development and the technical attack aspect, causes the mold technological development step not to be big, progresses not quick.
     (3) The craft equipment level to be low, also necessary is not good, the use factor low  
    Recent years our country engine bed profession progressed quickly, has been able to provide the quite complete precision work equipment, but compared with the overseas equipment, still had a bigger disparity. Although the domestic many enterprises have introduced many overseas advanced equipment, but the overall equipment level low are very more than the overseas many enterprises. As a result of aspect the and so on system and fund reason, introduces the equipment not necessary, the equipment and the appendix not necessary phenomenon are extremely common, the equipment utilization rate low question
cannot obtain the comparatively properly solution for a long time .
    (4) Specialization, standardization, commercialized degree low,the
 cooperation ability  
    Because receives "large and complete" "small and entire" the influence since long ago, mold specialization level low, the professional labor division is not careful, the commercialized degree is low. At present domestic every year produces mold, commodity mold minister 40% about, other for from produce uses for oneself. Between the molds enterprise cooperates impeded, completes the comparatively large-scale mold complete task with difficulty. Mold standardization level low, mold standard letter use cave rare is low also to the mold quality, the cost has a more tremendous influence, specially has very tremendous influence.
    (5) To the mold manufacture cycle) the mold material and the mold correlation
technology fall.
    The mold material performance, the quality and the variety question often can affect the mold quality, the life and the cost, the domestically produced molding tool steel and overseas imports the steel products to compare has a bigger disparity. Plastic, plate, equipment energy balance, also direct influence mold level enhancement.
    Along with the global economy development, the new technological revolution made the new progress and the breakthrough unceasingly, the technical leap development already becomes the important attribute which the impetus world economics grew. The market economy unceasing development, urges the industry product more and more to the multi- varieties, high grade, the low cost direction to develop, in order to maintain and strengthens the product in market competitive power, product development cycle, production cycle more and more short, thereupon to makes each kind of product the essential craft equipment mold request to be more and more harsh.
    On the one hand the enterprise for the pursue scale profit, causes the mold to turn towards high speed, is precise, the long life direction develops; On the other hand enterprise in order to satisfy the multi- varieties,, the product renewal quickly, wins the market the need, requests the mold to turn towards the manufacture cycle to be short, the cost low fast economy direction develops. The computer, the laser, electronic, the new material, the new technical development, causes the fast economical pattern making technology even more powerful, the application scope expands unceasingly, the type increases unceasingly, the creation economic efficiency and the social efficiency are more and more remarkable. The fast economical pattern making technology and the traditional machine-finishing compares, has the pattern making cycle short, the cost is low, the precision and the life can satisfy in the production the operation requirements, is synthesizes an economic efficiency quite remarkable kind to make the mold the technology, summarizes below, has several types to leave.
 

1 Fast prototype manufactures technology

    The fast prototype manufacture technology is called RPM, is one kind of new
manufacture technology which the 80's later period develops. US, Japan, England, Israel, Germany, China have all promoted own commercialization product, and has formed the new industry gradually. RPM is the computer, the laser, the optical scanning, the advanced new material, the computer-aided design (CAD), the computer assistance processing (CAM), the numerical control (CNC) synthesizes the application the high technology and new technology.
    In takes shape in the concept take the plane separate, piles up as the instruction, in the control take the computer and the numerical control as the foundation, and take biggest flexibility as general goals. It has abandoned the traditional machine-finishing method, to the manufacturing industry transformation is a significant breakthrough, uses the RPM technology to be possible directly or indirectly the fast pattern making, this technology already by profession  widespread application and so on automobile, aviation, electrical appliances, ships, medical service, and mold.
 

2 Surfaces take shape the pattern making technology .

    The surface takes shape the pattern making technology, mainly is the use spurts spreads, the electrolytic casting, chemistry corrosion and so on the new technique formation cavity surface and the fine pattern one kind of craft technology, in the practical application including following several kind of types.
    Electric arcs spurt spread take shape the pattern making technology .The electric arc spurts spreads takes shape the technical principle is: Has the electric arc quantity of heat using between 2 circular telegrams tinsel to melt the tinsel, depends upon the compressed gas its full atomization, and gives the certain kinetic energy, high speed sprays in the type mold surface, layer upon layer mounts, forms a metal shell, namely the cavity internal surface, uses to fill the substrate material again (generally for metal silt and resin compound materials) performs to support the reinforcement, enhances its intensity and the rigidity, combines the mold together with the metal pattern frame.
    This kind of pattern making technology craft simple, cost low, manufacture cycle extremely short, the cavity surface takes shape only needs for several hours, saves the energy and the metal material, general cavity surface 2-3mm is only thick, simulation greatly strengthened, the pattern precision may achieve 0.5 mu m. At present this technology widely uses in superficial shape and so on airplane, automobile mold, electrical appliances, furniture, shoe making, fine arts handicraft is complex and the pattern fine each kind of polyurethane product blow molding, attracts models, the PVC injection, PU becomes spongy and each kind of injection takes shape in the mold.  
    Electrolytic castings take shape the technology The electrolytic casting takes
shape the technical principle to be same with the galvanization, is according to model the mold (ready-made product or female mold which makes according to product blueprint) is the datum (negative pole), places in the electrolytic casting fluid (anode), causes in the electrolytic casting fluid the metallic ion to return to original state a latter place deposition on the type mold, forms the metal shell, after strips it, contacts the surface with the type mold namely for the mold the cavity internal surface. This technical main characteristic is saves material, the mold manufacture cycle short, electrolytic casting level degree of hardness may
reach 40HRC, enhanced the resistance to wear and the life, roughness, the size precision is completely consistent with the type mold, is suitable for the injection, attracts models, the blow molding, keeps out models, mold cavity and the electric spark and so on Bakelite mold, glass mold, compression casting mold takes shape the electrode manufacture.    
    Cavities surfaces fine pattern takes shape etching technology  The etching technology is optics, chemistry, the machining synthesis application one kind of technology, its basic principle is makes first the pattern design the film, then in has spread the film on pattern design duplication the photosensitive material on the mold cavity surface, process chemistry processing, the mold cavity surface does not form by the etching partial protectors, then acts according to the mold material quality, the choice corresponding etching craft, pattern design etching in mold internal surface. This technical main characteristic is the time short, the expense is low, patching damages the pattern design to be possible to achieve flawlessly.